The View Up Here

Random scribblings about kites, photography, machining, and anything else

Posts Tagged ‘XLR’

DIY Microphone: EM172 Capsule and XLR Plug

Posted by Tom Benedict on 05/03/2016

This is the last in a four part series about powering the Primo EM172 microphone capsule. Part 1 outlined the problem of how to provide 5-10v to the capsule and predicted some results. Part 2 shared some results and pointed out that the gain differences between inputs on my recorder invalidated my predictions. Part 3 discussed my reasons for going with XLR connectors on all my microphones, and some of the details of that. This last part puts it all together into a step-by-step DIY for building microphones with Primo EM172 capsules, powered by 48v phantom power on an XLR plug.

If you need to build a microphone based around the EM172 capsule that plugs into the 1/8″ mic jack on your recorder, or a laptop, tablet, whatever, there are already several excellent tutorials out there. Rather than adapt this one to your needs, refer to one of the existing tutorials. The two I used when I first started building EM172 microphones were the ones on Zach Poff’s page and the one on Wild Mountain Echoes.

In this DIY I’m going to assume you already have a plan for making a mic body. I made mine out of Delrin bar stock on a lathe. Others have used Sharpie pen caps, which also provide a nice clip for clipping the mic to things (see the tutorial on Wild Mountain Echoes), PVC pipe, brass tubing, etc. When mounting the mic in the mic body, make sure the front of the capsule is flush with or slightly proud of the mic body. Don’t recess it. I made that mistake with my first set of mics and wound up with mics that sounded like they were inside a sewer pipe. If in doubt experiment by wiring up the mic completely, plugging it in, and listening to it as you slide it in and out of the mic body you plan to use. After all, this is DIY. Experimentation is part of the deal.

Primo BT-EM172 to P48 XLR Wiring

Credit for the circuit goes entirely to David McGriffy, and credit for the component choice goes entirely to David McGriffy and Ricardo Lee. Ricardo Lee’s writeup, SimpleP48wm61, goes into the theory of the circuit and the reasons for the component choices in depth. It’s the real reference for this. (In order to use that link to download Ricardo’s file, you may need to be a member of the micbuilders group on Yahoo!. If you’re doing this DIY you’re a mic builder, so it’s not a stretch.)

EDIT: A couple of weeks ago Akira So brought to my attention that I had the capacitor poloarity reversed from how David McGriffy and Ricardo Lee have it in SimpleP48. I’ve since corrected the schematic here. Credit where credit’s due.

EDIT: Akira also pointed out that my value for R (120k) resulted in something like 1.3-1.5V at the capsule. I experimented with a number of resistors to see what value of R would produce 7.5V at the capsule on my recorder, and for a Tascam DR-70D, R=40k produces just over 7.5V. When you do this build, you will have to find what works best for your equipment.

EDIT: I also swapped the supplier for the EM172 from Frogloggers to Micbooster (FEL Communications). I haven’t heard from Gene at Frogloggers in a while. Hoping he’s doing ok.

For my build I used the following:

I also used some metal tape (copper in my case, from the local gardening center), heat shrink of various sizes, and the solder I found on the bench in the lab. (My Alphametals solder I’ve been using for the past 20 years isn’t ROHS certified, so I can’t say “use this stuff, it’s great!”)

Not including the tools necessary to fabricate the mic bodies, you’ll also need:

  • Soldering iron (temperature regulated if possible)
  • Source of heat for heat shrink (heat gun, lighter, etc.)
  • Assortment of wire cutters, strippers, fine tip pliers, etc.

Since most of the bodies people use for these require the mic to slide in  from the front end of the housing, we’ll start with the mic capsule.

EM172 Back End

The first step is to strip one end of the cable, trim back the red and white wires to a workable length, and still leave plenty of shield exposed. The red and white wires are then soldered onto the appropriate pads on the capsule.

Warning: The EM172 capsule is sensitive to heat. These two photos were made with a capsule I’d killed using an unregulated soldering iron, which is why the capsule looks a little ugly. If you have access to a regulated iron set your iron no higher than 735C and don’t hold the iron on a pad for more than a few seconds. If you don’t have access to a regulated soldering iron, be sure to get EM172 capsules with stub leads already soldered in place. The tutorial on Wild Mountain Echoes uses capsules with stub leads, so you can see how she did it. Do all your work on the stub leads. Don’t fry your microphones!

EM172 With Wires

Now we build the shielding around the capsule itself. Insulate the sides and back of the capsule with some heat shrink.

Capsule Isolated

Be sure to account for every strand in the shield as you bring it up and over the heat shrink. Wrap with foil tape and trim back the shield so no wires protrude. Be sure no wires cross over the heat shrink and touch the front of the capsule.

Making a Shield

Apply a second layer of heat shrink over the foil tape. I like to apply a short length of colored heat shrink to help me identify which mic is which when I’m running wires and plugging things in out in the field.

Heat Shrunk Ready To Go

At this point go ahead and run the mic cable through your mic body, but don’t mount the capsule just yet. Once you’ve soldered the connector end of the cable, it’s a good idea to test everything to make sure you didn’t make any soldering mistakes, and to make sure the capsule didn’t get damaged during soldering. Strip the other end of the cable, leaving a little more wire to work with than on the capsule end. Thread the wire through the end cap for the XLR connector and set it aside. Since the XLR connector provides its own shield you don’t have to do any metal tape trickery on this end. Gather the wires from the cable’s shield, twist into a bundle, and cover with heat shrink tubing. This is also a good time to apply a length of colored heat shrink to match the capsule end of the cable.

Cable Prepped With Shell

Grab the XLR connector body in a vise or some other holding fixture. If you don’t have a vise, a set of vise-grip pliers with tape over the serrated part of the jaw works well. Just don’t grab it so hard that the connector body is damaged or distorted. Another way to hold these connectors that works great is to have the mating connector screwed into a board. Plug the connector you’re working on into its counterpart and solder to your heart’s content. (I used a vise.)

Trim back the leads on the capacitor and resistor to something reasonable that’ll fit inside the XLR connector. Save the snipped off bits of the leads. One of these works well to bridge from pin 1 to the ground tab.

Resistor and Capacitor

Solder a leftover component lead from pin 1 to the ground tab. Next, solder one end of the resistor to the ground tab as well. Next, solder the (+) end of the capacitor to pin 2. Finally, tie the two free ends of the capacitor and resistor together.

XLR Plug with McGriffy Components

All that’s left is to solder the cable onto the plug. Red goes to pin 3, white goes to the (+) lead of the capacitor as well as the free end of the resistor, and the cable’s shield is soldered to the ground tab. (In this photo the connector is rotated 180 degrees from how it’s drawn in the schematic, but that’s how the solder cups are oriented. Flip it around in your mind and it’ll make sense.)

XLR Plug with Cable

At this point your microphone’s electronics are finished. Put the connector together and screw things tight.

This is a good time to test the mic to make sure nothing went wrong. Plug it into your recorder, turn on phantom 48v power, and dial up the gain. If all went well you should have a low noise microphone ready to be installed in its mic body. If not, go back and check each step to find out what went wrong.

Finished Mic

Have fun recording!



Posted in Audio, Electronics, Engineering | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , | 88 Comments »

Powering the EM172 Capsule – Part 3: Capitulation

Posted by Tom Benedict on 23/02/2016

I made up my mind about powering my EM172 microphones. Ultimately this decision had less to do with how I was powering the microphones than how I was plugging the mics into the recorder. One of the things I discovered when I wrote my last post was that the Tascam DR-70D uses completely different amplifiers for the XLR inputs and the 1/8″ inputs. Different form factor, obviously; different impedance; different gain. It’s that last part that really drove this decision.

The gain ranges on the 1/8″ plug are +3dB, +11dB, +26dB, and +38dB. The XLR gain ranges are +21dB, +36dB, +51dB, and +63dB. While I was performing side-by-side tests I kept having to crank back the gain on the XLR input to match the levels on the 1/8″ input. As I tested with quieter and quieter subjects it finally hit me: +38dB of gain just wasn’t enough to bring up the levels of some of the subjects I want to record. The XLR input gave me more gain to play with. The last test I ran was what finally convinced me. Even with the gain cranked all the way up on the 1/8″ input mics, I couldn’t get the sound levels over -25dBFS. The recording was just too quiet to use. I cranked up the gain on the XLR input, and was able to get -12dBFS with the same subject.

Good news is the mics really do perform better with the 9.6v bias voltage David McGriffy’s circuit provides. So this is a win-win.

The lavalier mics were no problem to convert. I bought a stash of Neutrik XLR connectors when I started this whole investigation, so it was just a matter of lopping off the 1/8″ connectors and soldering up the XLRs with the resistor and capacitor from McGriffy’s circuit.

XLR-Converted Lavalier

My SASS was another story. I really hate having things with cords that can’t be unplugged, so I wanted to connectorize everything and use extension cables. Only problem: I’m a beginner! So I had no idea how all the connectors worked.

After some Googling and image searching I learned that:

  • XLR extension cables are gender-inspecific. One end is male, the other is female.
  • Female XLR connectors are the ones with the latch. This is true of both panel and cable connectors. So female panel connectors have a latch, but male panel connectors don’t. (This confused me.)
  • Neutrik makes a crapload of XLR connectors you can choose from. It’s worth looking them up in multiple catalogs to find out which series were developed to fix the bugs in previous series. Though it’s really hard to go wrong, so long as you get all the genders right. These things are built like tanks.

I picked up a pair of pre-built 10′ extension cables for a little over the price of the connectors themselves along with some male panel jacks to install in the SASS. Installation meant cutting into the back of my SASS, but it went quite smoothly and the results look (and sound!) nice. (Yeah, this is an infrared photo. Ironwood trees look like Dr. Seuss trees in the IR, so I just had to play.)

SASS Back in the Field

Meanwhile I figured it was finally time to solve the issue of wind protection. A few months back I learned I’m really REALLY bad at sewing fake fur. I did some reading since then, so I think I know what I did wrong. But rather than getting stalled on my own lack of sewing skill I ordered a pair of lavalier windscreens from Cat Ears. They fit over my oversized mic bodies, but they’re too small to go over a foam windscreen. I probably needed the larger ones. They do a decent job by themselves, but in wind over 15-20kts the mics still suffer from wind noise. Good enough to use the lavs as tree ears, but not enough to use them at the beach in solid wind.

Cat Ears Windscreens

Now I just need to solve the issue of wind protection for my SASS. Back to learning to sew fur…

In any case my gear and I are off the soldering bench and back out in the field. Finally. YAAAAAAAY!


Posted in Audio, Electronics, Engineering | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , | 3 Comments »

Powering the EM172 Capsule

Posted by Tom Benedict on 16/01/2016

Chris Hass wrote a very nice article on building microphones around the EM172 capsules on her site, Wild Mountain Echoes. In it she mentions the issue of power. The datasheet for the EM172 specifies a supply voltage of 5-10v, but most handheld recorders supply something considerably lower than that. Chris and I compared notes, and her Sony PCM-M10 and both of my Tascams supply something closer to 2.3-2.7v. My question to her was how this affects performance, and what my options are for doing something about it.

Chris suggested bypassing the recorder’s own built-in power and using an external battery box to supply a higher voltage to the mic. She pointed me toward the boxes made by Church Audio. I followed her advice and bought a Bat 2B from them. It should be here in a couple of weeks.

Since my 70D has XLR inputs I decided to pursue another possibility as well. Most recorders can supply 24V or 48V phantom power on their XLR inputs. The only trick left is to drop that down to the 5-10V the microphones want. I ran across a thread on the Yahoo! micbuilder forum that referenced a circuit by David McGriffy called Simple P48 WM61 (referring to a simple circuit to power the Panasonic WM61 microphone from 48v phantom power). Richard Lee uploaded a document to the forum describing McGriffy’s circuit, along with modifications for using it with (you guessed it) the EM172 capsule. I still have a bunch of Mogami cable left over from building my earlier mics, so I ordered the remaining parts for McGriffy’s circuit from Mouser Electronics. he parts should be here in a couple of weeks as well.

In the meantime I figured it would be a good mental exercise to try to predict what each of these approaches would buy me in terms of performance. All of this ties back to a set of graphs on the micbuilder forum. It’s in Files/EM172/Primo EM172 Sens Noise vs RL VL.pdf. The graphs show the performance of the EM172 capsule as a function of supply voltage and input impedance. Using a battery box or McGriffy’s XLR circuit will let me change the supply voltage, but the input impedance is a function of the recorder. Here are some cases:


Tascam DR-05 and DR-70D 1/8″ Inputs:

Both the Tascams supply just under 3v for plug-in-power. The input impedance on the DR-05 is 25k ohms, and the DR-70D is 10k ohms. The graphs only go up to 10k ohms, so I’m using that number for both cases. Bumping the supply voltage from 3v to 9v should have the following effect:

Sensitivity: -38.6dB -> -36.7dB (smaller negative numbers are better)
Noise Floor: -112.7dB -> -116.1dB (bigger negative numbers are better)
S/N: 74.1 -> 79.4dB (bigger numbers are better)

In reality the DR-05 should get a bigger bump since its baseline performance will be lower than at 10k ohms, judging by the trend in the graphs. But the preamps on the DR-05 are noisier than those on the DR-70D, so I may not be able to hear the improvement.


Tascam DR-70D XLR Input:

The DR-70D’s XLR inputs have an input impedance of 2k ohms. Since I’m starting at 5V it should have the following performance:

Sensitivity: -38.3dB
Noise Floor: -116.8dB
S/N: 78.5dB

The noise floor is better than on the 1/8″ input, but the sensitivity won’t be quite as high. If I re-sized the resistor in the McGriffy circuit to provide something closer to 10v I’d get the following results:

Sensitivity: -37.7dB
Noise Floor: -116.8dB
S/N: 79.1dB

No change in the noise floor, but the sensitivity would improve by another 0.6dB. I’m not sure I can hear that, so it’s probably not worth dinking with.


Sony PCM-M10:

I also ran the numbers for Chris’s recorder. The Sony has an impedance of 3.9k ohms. Bumping from 3V to 9V should have the following effect:

Sensitivity: -37.8dB -> -37.2dB
Noise Floor: -115.1dB -> -116.5dB
S/N: 77.3dB -> 79.3dB

Almost 1.5dB improvement in noise floor, and 2dB overall improvement in signal to noise.


Sony PCM-D100:

The input impedance of the higher-end companion to the M10, the PCM-D100, is 22k ohms. It should see a similar performance bump to the Tascam DR-05, but since the preamps on the D100 are so much better than the DR-05, this will likely make for an audible improvement in the performance of the mic.


From the standpoint of mic performance, both approaches provide a clear gain. Whether my ear is sensitive enough to tell the difference remains to be seen (or heard!) From the standpoint of convenience, additional gear complexity, etc. each one has its pluses and minuses.

On the up side, the Church Audio battery box supplies 9V and will work with any recorder with a 1/8″ input, so I can use it on both of my recorders. Another up side for me, personally, is that so far I’ve built all my EM172 mics with 1/8″ plugs, so it requires the least re-work in order to test. On the down side it means I have to add a 9v battery, battery box, and cable to my setup. Velcro will go a long way toward making this a non-issue (mostly), but I wish this kind of thing could be designed in from the get-go. (Recorder manufacturers take heed! Being able to dial in a particular plug-in-power voltage would be nifty!)

The up side with the XLR approach is that from the standpoint of gear it amounts to changing the plug at the end of the cable. All of the circuitry fits inside the XLR plug. As an added bonus I’ll be able to plug EM172 mics into all four XLR inputs on my 70D, which is pretty darned cool. (The 70D only has one 1/8″ plug, which is tied to channels 1 and 2 only. Up until now I’ve only been able to do two channel recording on my four channel recorder.) The down side is that the 48v phantom supply on the 70D is a battery hog. So even if it works it means I’ll have to pack extra batteries or an external battery pack.

Good news is neither approach was all that expensive, and even with the Bat 2B or the external battery to compensate for the extra load from the 48v phantom power, neither adds too much bulk to my bag. For the moment I’m looking at it as having more options rather than having to choose between one approach or the other. In the extreme case it would give me the ability to plug two mics into my DR-05 with the Bat 2B, and another four into my DR-70D using XLR plugs. Six channels at once!

Now all I need is a subject that actually needs six channel audio. But that’s for another day.


Posted in Audio | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 4 Comments »